World History

Timeline of Early Islamic World

570 –
Mecca is where Muhammad is born.

610 –
When Muhammad gets the first revelations of the Quran, the Islamic religion officially begins.

622 –
In order to avoid persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his companions relocate to Medina. The “Hijrah”—a name given to this migration—signifies the start of the Islamic calendar.

630 –
Muhammad takes over the city of Mecca upon his return. The Islamic universe is centred in Mecca.

632 –
After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr becomes the new leader of the Muslim faith. Of the four “Rightly Guided” Caliphs, he is the first. Also starting at this time is the Rashidun Caliphate.

634 –
The second Caliph is Umar. During his reign, the Islamic Empire grows to encompass a large portion of the Middle East, including Iraq, Egypt, Syria, and a portion of North Africa.

644 –
As the third Caliph, Uthman. He will write the Quran’s official translation.

656 –
The next Caliph is Ali bin Talib.

661 to 750 –
Ali is assassinated, and sovereignty is then given to the Umayyad Caliphate. To Damascus, they relocate the capital.

680 –
Ali’s son Hussein is slain in Karbala.

692 –
In Jerusalem, the Dome of the Rock is finished.

711 –
Muslims travel from Morocco into Spain. In due course, they will seize control of the majority of the Iberian Peninsula.

Up until Charles Martel’s victory at the Battle of Tours, the Islamic army invades France.

750 to 1258 –
Assuming power, the Abbasid Caliphate establishes Baghdad as its new capital. The Islamic Empire goes through a time of great creative and scientific achievement known as the Golden Age of Islam.

780 –
Al-Khwarizmi, a mathematician and scientist, is born. He has earned the moniker “Father of Algebra.”

972 –
Egypt’s Al-Azhar University is established in Cairo.

The Canon of Medicine, Ibn Sina’s medical encyclopaedia, is finished. For hundreds of years, it will serve as the primary medical textbook in Europe and the Middle East.

1048 –
Omar Khayyam, a well-known poet and scientist, is born.

1099 –
During the First Crusade, Christian forces retake Jerusalem.

1187 –
Jerusalem is retaken by Saladin.

1258 –
The Caliph is assassinated and much of Baghdad is destroyed by the Mongol army.

1261 to 1517 –
Cairo, Egypt becomes the capital of the Caliphate under the Abbasid Caliphate. Although they have governmental and military control, the Mamluks have religious authority.

1325 –
Ibn Battuta, a well-known Muslim traveller, sets out on his journey.

1453 –
The Byzantine Empire is overthrown when the Ottomans capture Constantinople.

1492 –
The last Islamic stronghold in Spain is destroyed in Granada after centuries of repression.

1517 to 1924 –
Egypt is taken by the Ottoman Empire, which thereafter annexes the Caliphate.

1526 –
In India, the Mughal Empire is founded.

1529 –
At the Siege of Vienna, the Ottoman Empire is routed, halting its push into Europe.

1653 –
In India, the Taj Mahal, a mausoleum for the Mughal Emperor’s bride, is finished.

1924 –
First Turkish President Mustafa Ataturk abolishes the Caliphate.