World History

Scientists and Scholars of Early Islamic World

Many significant discoveries in the fields of mathematics, science, philosophy, physics, geography, and medicine were made during the Islamic Empire. Here is a list of some of the most well-known Islamic scholars and researchers:

Al-Haytham (c. 945–c. 1040) –
Al-Haytham, often spelt Alhazen, was one of the first theoreticians in history. He contributed contributions to a variety of fields, such as mathematics, astronomy, and optics. He contributed to the development of the scientific method and also detailed how to conduct experiments. His work in the field of optics was possibly the most significant. Roger Bacon, Leonardo da Vinci, and Johann Kepler were among the future western scientists who were affected by his book of optics, a collection of his articles on optics.

Al-Khwarizmi (780–850) –
One of the most well-known mathematicians of the Middle Ages was Al-Khwarizmi. His pioneering work in equation-solving techniques earned him the moniker “Father of Algebra.” The name “algebra” is derived from the equation-solving technique he developed known as “al-jabr.” Al-Khwarizmi also contributed to the fields of geography, astronomy, and trigonometry. His adopted western name “Algoritmi” eventually became the word for the mathematical concept “algorithm.”

Al-Kindi (801-873 CE) – 
The Greek scientist and philosopher Aristotle was studied by the Arab scholar Al-Kindi. He was a prolific author who was frequently referred to as the “Father of Arab Philosophy.” Al-Kindi also pursued studies in music, medicine, and mathematics.

Al-Nafis (1213-1288 CE) – 
Al-Nafis was a physician who practised from 1213 to 1288 CE. He is most known for his descriptions of the pulmonary circulation. He described the blood’s journey from the right side of the heart to the lungs, where it takes up oxygen, before returning to the left side of the heart.

Al-Razi (854–925 CE):
Al-Razi was a prominent physician throughout the Middle Ages. In multiple works that ultimately served as textbooks in numerous western medical institutions, he documented many of his medical observations. His discoveries included observations on how to differentiate between various ailments. His research on measles and smallpox is one instance of this.

Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE) –
Al-Zahrawi was a surgeon who practised between 936 and 1013 CE. He was a prolific author and is occasionally referred to as the “Father of Surgery.”

Ibn Rushd ( 1126-1198 CE, also called Averroes) –
Ibn Rushd, was a scholar who studied a variety of sciences. He lived from 1126 to 1198 CE. He is most known for being an Islamic law expert and philosopher. He was an adherent of the Greek philosopher Aristotle and argued that God created the scientific rules that govern the natural world.

Ibn Sina (980-1037 CE, also called Avicenna)
Ibn Sina, is regarded as one of the greatest thinkers of the Middle Ages. He contributed to the fields of astronomy, geography, mathematics, medicine, and philosophy, among others. His most well-known work, The Canon of Medicine, was used as a required text in medical schools for many years.

Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE) –
Omar Khayyam studied a wide variety of sciences but is best known for his work in mathematics, astronomy, and poetry (1048–1131 CE). He made developments in geometry and algebra in mathematics. He is renowned in astronomy for using the stars to make a precise calendar. As one of the great poets from the Middle East, he also rose to fame in the west.