World History

Poland | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts

Information about Poland:

Capital Warsaw
Population 41,026,067 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Warsaw (capital), Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz, Lublin and Białystok
Borders Belarus, Czechia, Germany, the Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave of Russia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Ukraine & maritime borders with Denmark and Sweden
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $688,177,000,000 (2022 worldometer)
Currency zloty (PLN)

Flag of Poland:

Poland Economy Key Industries:

Poland Major Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Poland Agricultural Products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy

Poland Natural Resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land

Poland Major Exports: machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2003)

Poland Major Imports: machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 14.8%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9.1% (2003)

The Geography of Poland:

Total Size of Poland: 322,575 km² (source: 2022 wikipedia)

Geographical Low Point of Poland: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m

Geographical High Point of Poland: Rysy 2,499 m

Climate of Poland: Temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

General Terrain of Poland: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

World Region or Continent of Poland:  Europe

Geographical Coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E

Major Landforms of Poland: Carpathian Mountains, Sudetes Mountians, Masurian Lake District, Mount Rysy, Polish Plain

Major Bodies of Water: Vistula River, Oder River, Warta River, Bug River, Sniardwy Lake, Lake Mamry, Wigry Lake, Vistula Lagoon, Gulf of Gdansk, Baltic Sea

Famous Places of Poland: 

Krakow Main Square,
Tatra Mountains,
Auschwitz concentration camp,
Wawel Castle,
Malbork Castle,
Slowinski Sand Dunes,
Wieliczka Salt Mine,
Gdansk Old Town,
Warsaw market,
Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw,
Bieszcady Mountains,
Bialowieza Forest,
Wilanow Palace

The People of  Poland & Culture

Poland Government Type: republic

Poland Nationality: Pole(s)

Poland National Holiday: Constitution Day, May 3rd (1791)

Other Holidays of Poland: New Years’ Day (January 1), Easter Monday, Labor Day (May 1), Constitution Day (May 3), Pentecost, Corpus Christi, Assumption, Polish Armed Forces Day (August 15), All Saints’ Day (Nov 1), Christmas (December 25), Boxing Day (December 26)

Poland Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

Poland National Symbol:

  • Bird – White Stork, White-tailed eagle
  • Animal – European Bison
  • Tree – Oak tree
  • Flower – Cornflower
  • Colors – Red and white
  • Mottos (unofficial) – “For our freedom and yours”, “God, Honor, Fatherland”
  • Coat of arms – A white eagle with a golden beak and crown on a red shield

Poland National Anthem or Song: Mazurek Dabrowskiego (Dabrowski’s Mazurka)

Poland Languages Spoken: Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

Poland Religions: Roman Catholic 89.8% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other 0.3%, unspecified 8.3% (2002).

Famous People of Poland:

Names Professions
Yitzhak Zuckerman Leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in WWII
Lech Walesa Leader of the Polish Solidarity movement
Arthur Rubinstein Pianist
Lukas Podolski Soccer player
Pope John Paul II Religious leader of the Catholic Church
Robert Lewandowski Soccer player
Joanna Krupa Model
Marie Curie Scientist known for her work with radiation
Nicolas Copernicus Astronomer who placed the Sun at the center of the universe
Frederic Chopin Classical music composer
Catherine the Great Russian Tsar born in today’s Poland
Wernher von Braun Early rocket scientist
Gunter Blobel Nobel Prize winning biologist

Interesting Facts about Poland:

Poland is the 9th largest country in Europe. (8th, excluding Russia) Poland is not a small country, but one of the largest. Poland is bigger than Italy and England.

The name “Poland” (Polska) has a meaning. The name comes from the Polani name, which means “people who live in the fields”.

Poland used to have the tallest buildings in the world. The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantinov was the tallest structure in the world from 1974 until he collapsed in 1991. It is the second tallest building in history, after the Burj Khalifa, which was completed in 2010. The mast height was 646.38 meters (2,120.7 feet).

Poland also has the largest castle in the world. Poland has an impressive 16 World Heritage Sites, including Malbork, the world’s largest castle. Measured by area. Prague Castle is often claimed to be the largest in the world, but it is not because it is not a single area.

Wearing a hat indoors is considered rude in Poland. Wearing a hat in someone’s house or church is a sign of disrespect. Young people generally don’t mind, but older generations may find it offensive.

Mushroom picking is a popular family activity in Poland. Going to the forest for wild mushrooms at the end of summer is a popular activity for many people in Poland. Children are taught from an early age how to distinguish between edible and poisonous mushrooms.

Buying an even number of flowers for a funeral is considered a mistake. Chrysanthemums, white lilies, and red carnations, on the other hand, are considered funeral flowers, so be careful not to buy them on other occasions. Some take it very seriously.