World History

Julius Caesar | Biography, Conquests, Family, Death & Facts

Where did Caesar grow up?

Julius Caesar was born in 100 BC. At Subra in Rome. He was born into a noble family that may be traced back to the founding of Rome. His parents were wealthy, but not wealthy by Roman standards. His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar Overview:

Occupation Roman general and dictator
Children Augustus, Caesarion, Julia Caesaris
Born July 100 BC in Rome, Italy
Died 15 March 44 BC in Rome, Italy
Best known for Being the dictator of Rome and putting an end to the Roman Republic

Biography of Julius Caesar:

Did Caesar go to school?

Gaius began his education at the age of about six. He was tutored by a tutor named Marcus Antonius Gnifo. He learned to read and write. He also learned about Roman law and how to speak in public. These were important skills he needed as a Roman leader.

Becoming an Adult

Caesar’s father died when he was sixteen. He became the head of his family and was responsible for his mother Aurelia and his sister Julia. At the age of 17 he married Cornelia, the daughter of a powerful Roman politician.

Early Career

The young Caesar soon found himself in the middle of a power struggle between two factions within the government. Sulla, the current Roman dictator, was at odds with both Caesar’s uncle, Marius, and Caesar’s father-in-law, Cinna. Caesar joined his army and left Rome avoiding Sulla and his allies.

When Sulla died, Caesar returned to Rome. He has been a military hero since his army days. He rose rapidly through the ranks of the Roman government. He allied himself with strongmen like the general Pompey and the wealthy Crassus. Caesar was a great orator and loved by the people of Rome.

Consul and General

Julius Caesar was elected consul at the age of 40. The consul was the highest position in the Roman Republic. Consuls were like presidents, but there were two consuls whose terms were only one year. At the end of his years as consul, Caesar was made governor of Gaul.

As governor of Gaul, Caesar commanded four Roman legions. He was a very capable governor and general. He conquered all of Gaul. He earned the respect and honor of his army and was soon considered the greatest general in the Roman army, alongside Pompey.

Civil War

During Caesar’s time in Gaul, Roman politics became increasingly hostile. Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his followers. Even Pompey was jealous, and soon Caesar and Pompey became rivals. Caesar had popular support, Pompey had aristocratic support.

Caesar returned to Rome and announced that he would run for consul again. The Roman Senate replied that he must first give up command of the army. Caesar refused and the Senate labeled him a traitor. Caesar began marching his army towards Rome.

Caesar took over his government in 49 BC. He seized control of Rome and spent the next eighteen months fighting Pompey. Eventually he defeated Pompey and pursued him to Egypt. When he arrived in Egypt, he was a young pharaoh, Ptolemy XIII. He kills Pompey and gives his head to Caesar.

Dictator of Rome

46 BC Caesar returned to Rome. He is now the most powerful man in the world. The Senate made him dictator for life and he ruled like a king. He brought many changes to Rome. He took his supporters to the Senate. He built new buildings and temples in the city of Rome. He changed the calendar to the now famous Julian calendar with 365 days and leap years.

Murder

Some people in Rome thought Caesar was too powerful. They feared that his reign would bring about the end of the Roman Republic. they were going to kill him. The masterminds of the conspiracy were Cassius and Brutus. March 15, 44 BC Caesar was admitted to the Senate. Several men ran towards him and began attacking and killing him. He was stabbed 23 times.

Interesting Facts about Julius Caesar

Caesar was once kidnapped by pirates when he was young. He joked to them that he would be executed when he was free. They laughed, but the last time Caesar laughed was when he later had them caught and killed.

Caesar’s uncle was the famous war hero Gaius Marius, known for reorganizing the Roman army.

Caesar’s death anniversary, March 15th, is also called “March Day”. During his stay in Egypt, he fell in love with the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra. He helped her become a Pharaoh and had a child with her named Caesarion.

Caesar’s successor was his nephew Octavian.

Octavianus was the first Roman emperor to change his name to Caesar Augustus.