World History

Iran | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts

Information about Iran:

Capital Tehran
Population  89,292,762 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Tehran (capital), Mashhad, Isfahan, Karaj (a suburb of Tehran), Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahvaz, and Qom
Borders Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $388,544,000,000 (2022 worldometer)
Currency Iranian rial (IRR)

Flag of Iran:

Iranian flag: Iran’s flag was adopted on July 29, 1980. It is also known as the Holy Flag or the Three Color Flag. It has three white, middle-green, and bottom-red horizontal stripes. The red national anthem is displayed in the center of the flag. The phrase “God is Great” is inscribed 22 times around the edge of the red and green stripes. The color green is a symbol of joy, harmony, energy, and the Persian language. White is a symbol of peace. Red is the color of martyrs.

Iran Economy Key Industries:

Iran Major Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments

Iran Agricultural Products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Iran Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Iran Major Exports: petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets

Iran Major Imports: industrial raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services, military supplies

The Geography of Iran:

Total Size of Iran: 1.648 million km² (source: wikipedia)

Geographical Low Point of Iran: Caspian Sea -28 m

Geographical High Point of Iran: Kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m

Climate of Iran: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

General Terrain of Iran: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

World Region or Continent of Iran: Middle East

Geographical Coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Major Landforms of Iran: Alborz Mountains, Zagros Mountains, Lut Desert, Kavir Desert, Mount Damavand, Khuzestan Plain, Caspian Plain

Major Bodies of Water: Lake Urmia (salt lake), Karun River, Karkheh River, Zayandeh River, Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea

Famous Places of Iran: 

Persepolis (capital of the Persian Empire),
Milad Tower in Tehran,
Golestan Palace,
Azadi Tower,
Mosque of the Shah,
Tomb of Cyrus the Great,
Tomb of Imam Reza,
Naqsh-e Jahan Square,
Lake Urmia,
Vank Cathedral

The People of  Iran & Culture

Iran Government Type: theocratic republic

Iran Nationality: Iranian(s)

Iran National Holiday: Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Other Holidays if Iran: 

Khomeini’s death,
Victory of the Iranian Revolution,
Islamic Republic Day,
Birth of Muhammad,
Eid ul-Fitr,
Eid ul-Adha,
Eid al-Ghadeer,
Martyrdom of Fatima,
Nature Day

Iran Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

Iran National Symbol:

  • Animal – Persian leopard, cheetah, lion, Persian cat, deer
  • Tree – Cedrus
  • Flower – Tulip, lotus, lily
  • Bird – Nightingale, falcon
  • Fruit – Pomegranate
  • Food – Chelo kabob
  • Colors – Green, white, red
  • Musical instruments – Santur, Setar
  • Motto – Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic
  • Emblem – Four crescents and a sword.
  • Other symbols – Persepolis, Griffin, Cyrus the Great, Azadi Tower

Iran National Anthem or Song: Soroud-e Melli-ye Jomhouri-ye Eslami-ye Iran (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran)

Iran Languages Spoken: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

Iran Religions: Shi’a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha’i 2%

Interesting Facts about Iran:

Iranians are Persians, not Arabs, therefore Iran is not an Arab nation. The majority of Middle Eastern nations speak Arabic, but Iranians do not; instead, we speak Persian, commonly known as Farsi. Iranians make approximately 61% of the country’s population, with the remainder being made up of Azeris, Kurds, Lors, Arabs, Baluchs, and other ethnic groups.

The calendar that Iranians use is a solar calendar, which bases timekeeping on the motions of the Earth around the Sun. Nowrouz, the first day of spring, falls on the first day of the year. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the final month usually has 29 days but has a leap day of 30 days.

Iran was formerly known as Persia. The name of the nation was changed from Persia to Iran in 1935 by Reza Shah, the king of Iran. Iranian refers to the Aryan homeland.

Typically, Iranian meals are served with rice or a variety of flatbreads. The most common cuisine in Iran is slow-cooked stews with rice, however there are also several kebab dishes. For every meal, Iranians adore having salad or fresh herbs as a side dish.

In Iran, Thursday and Friday are the weekend days. While Friday is like Sunday, Thursday is like Saturday with banks and shops open but some offices closed.

Don’t give someone the thumbs up when you are in Iran. A thumbs-up basically resembles holding up your middle finger.

Zoroastrianism, one of the oldest religions in the world, is practiced in Iran. In the sixth century BC, the prophet Zoroaster established the religion. Zoroastrians are still present in Iran today. Despite the fact that Muslims make up the majority of the population, all Iranians continue to observe several of the major Zoroastrian feasts. These celebrations include Nowruz, Yalda, and Charshanbe Souri.

Iranian rugs are well known around the world.

Iran is the home of Asia’s tallest volcano.

Iranian women must cover their heads in public starting at age nine.

Football is the most popular sport in Iran.

Only one river in Iran is navigable by boats.

Iran has eight rivers.