World History

India Timeline and History Highlights

India Timeline Highlights

B.C.

3000 – The Indus civilization is established in northern India and Pakistan.

2500 – Large cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro are born.

1700 – The Iron Age begins in India.

1500 – Aryans arrive from Central Asia. The Indus civilization collapsed. The Vedic period begins. It contains the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.

520 – Buddhism is founded by Gautama Siddhartha.

326 – Alexander the Great arrives in northern India.

322 – The Maurya Empire is founded.

272 – Ashoka the Great becomes emperor of Maurya. He greatly expands his empire.

265 – Ashoka the Great converts to Buddhism. He carried out many reforms within the government.

230 – The Satavahana Realm is established.

CE 60 – The Kushan Empire gains control of northern India. South India is ruled by the Satavahana Empire.

319 – The Gupta Empire takes over most of India. There was a period of peace and prosperity under the rule of the Gupta Empire. During this period, many advances were made in science and art.

500 – The decimal system was invented in India.

554 – The Gupta Empire begins to crumble.

712 – Islam reaches northern India with the Umayyad Caliphate.

1000 – Ghaznavids invade from the north.

1210 – Delhi Sultanate is established.

1221 – Genghis Khan leads the first Mongol invasion of India.1398 – Timur’s Mongol army invades northern India.

1498 – Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives in India. He was the first European to reach India by sea. He established trade between Europe and India.

1527 – Mughal Empire founded by Babur.

1556 – Akbar the Great becomes emperor of the Mughal Empire. He would extend his empire to most of the Indian subcontinent. Art and literature flourished during his reign.

1600 – The British East India Company receives a charter from Elizabeth I giving it a monopoly on trade with India.

1653 – The Taj Magyar is completed in Agra. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

1757 – The East India Company defeats the Bengals at the Battle of Plassey.

1772 – Warren Hastings is appointed the first governor of Bengal.

1857 – Indians revolt against British East India Company rule.

1858 – The British Empire acquires the East India Company. British Indian Empire established.

1877 – Queen Victoria claims the title of Empress of India.

1885 – The Indian National Congress is established to achieve India’s independence.

1911 – The British government moves the capital from Calcutta to Delhi.

1920 – Mahatma Gandhi starts a non-violent movement against the British government.

1930 – Gandhi leads the salt march against the British salt monopoly.

1942 – The ‘Stop India’ movement is launched by the Indian National Congress.

1947 – India becomes an independent state. In the north, the Islamic State of Pakistan is established. Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the first Prime Minister of India.

1948 – War breaks out between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir border.

1948 – Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated.

1950 – India becomes a republic.

1966 – Indira Gandhi, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, is elected prime minister.

1971 – India goes to war with Pakistan over the creation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan.

1974 – India detonates its first nuclear weapon.

1984 – Indira Gandhi is assassinated.

1972 – India signs Shimla Agreement with Pakistan.

1996 – Hindu nationalist party BJP becomes the largest political party.

2000 – India’s population exceeds 1 billion.

2002 – Tensions rise between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.

2004 – A massive earthquake hits the Indian Ocean and a tsunami hits India, killing over 10,000 people.

India History Highlights:

Thousands of years ago, India was home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization. The Mauryan Empire ruled the country in the 300s and 200s BC. It has grown into one of the world’s largest empires. A few years later, the Golden Age of India would come during the Gupta dynasty. The Gupta dynasty lasted from 319 AD to 554 AD and gave rise to new developments in science, great arts and high culture.

With the rise of Islam in Arab countries, Islam began to spread to India. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and ruled as the Delhi Sultanate. A few years later, the Mughal Empire rose to power and ruled the country for over 300 years.

In the 16th century, European explorers began invading India. Britain eventually took control of India. At the beginning of the 20th century, India fought for independence from Britain. A non-violent protest against Britain erupted under the leadership of Mohandas Gandhi. After years of struggle, India was granted independence from Britain in 1947.

The country was then split between India and Pakistan. After that, East Pakistan became a third country, Bangladesh. India and Pakistan have long had a tense relationship, with both countries conducting nuclear weapons tests.

India has serious problems such as poverty, corruption and overpopulation. However, the country has recently experienced strong economic and technological development.