World History

Important Cities of Islamic World

One of the biggest empires in global history was the early Islamic Empire. Large cities became the commercial and governmental hubs of the expanding empire. Mecca and Medina were two of these cities that were significant from a religious standpoint. The Caliphate, the administration in charge of the empire, had capitals in other places.

(Saudi Arabia) Mecca

Mecca is the most significant city in the Islamic faith. Muhammad was born in Mecca, where he also established the Islamic faith. The city continues to be the most significant in modern Islam. Muslims always pray towards the city of Mecca when they pray. Additionally, if possible, every Muslim must perform the Hajj, a journey to Mecca, at least once in their lifetime.

(Saudi Arabia) Medina

Muhammad travelled to Medina after leaving Mecca. Medina served as the centre of the expanding Islamic Empire during the duration of Muhammad’s life as well as the rule of the First Four Caliphs. Muhammad’s grave is in Medina, which is now regarded as the second-holiest Muslim city after Mecca.

Syria’s Damascus

In 634 CE, Damascus came under the rule of the Islamic Empire. It was the Eastern Roman Empire’s (Byzantine Empire’s) first significant city to fall to the Arabs. Damascus was chosen as the Islamic Empire’s capital in 661 CE by the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE). It served as the Islamic Empire’s political hub for about a century.

Iraq’s Baghdad

The Abbasid Caliphate determined they needed a new capital city when they seized power over the Islamic Empire in 750 CE. In the year 762 CE, they established Baghdad as their new capital. Baghdad served as the regional political capital of the Middle East for the majority of the following 500 years. It was chosen because of its Tigris River location in the heart of Mesopotamia.

(Egypt) Cairo

The Mongols invaded Baghdad in 1258 and took the city fortified. The city was largely destroyed. In Cairo, Egypt, the Abbasid Caliphate reclaimed its authority as the Muslim world’s religious authority. The Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo, however, had the actual political sway. Cairo took up the role of the Muslim world’s capital for the ensuing few hundred years.

(Turkish capital Istanbul) Constantinople

The Ottoman Empire seized Constantinople in 1453. The Islamic Caliphate was replaced by the Ottoman Empire when they conquered Cairo in 1517. One of the biggest cities in the globe and a significant commercial hub was Constantinople.

Spain’s Cordoba

Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) was centred in Cordoba. It was formerly a part of the Umayyad Caliphate, but it seceded when the Abbasids came into power. The main city (and occasionally the capital) of the Islamic presence in Spain (known as Al-Andalus) became Cordoba. The Umayyads briefly ascended to prominence and seized control of the Cordoba Caliphate.

Major Cities in the Early Islamic Empire: Interesting Facts

Non-Muslims are currently not allowed to enter Mecca. Any non-Muslim who is discovered in the city will be expelled from the nation.

With large, paved streets, flowing water, hospitals, and other technology that other European towns did not have in the Middle Ages, Cordoba was at one point one of the most technologically sophisticated cities in all of Europe.

The city of Baghdad was envisioned. The Round City of Baghdad, a huge circular structure, served as the city’s focal point. By the ninth century, Baghdad was one of the world’s greatest cities with a population of over 500,000.

In 1236, as a result of the Reconquista, Cordoba was once again ruled by Christians.

Medina is referred to as the “City of the Prophet.”