World History

Eritrea | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts

History of Eritrea:

The country of what is now Eritrea has been ruled by various powers around the Red Sea for most of its history. In 1885 the Italians seized control and colonized Eritrea. They tried to use this country as a base to take over Ethiopia. they failed. After World War II, Italy lost its power to Britain and merged with Ethiopia in 1952 to become one country. The Eritreans felt they were not treated fairly by the Ethiopians and wanted their own country. However, they were refused.

The Eritreans rebelled and fought for their freedom for 30 years. They finally won their independence in 1993. There is still hostility with Ethiopia, and there are border disputes between the two countries.

Information about Eritrea:

Capital Asmara (Asmera)
Population 3,761,220 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Asmara (Asmera) (capital), Keren, Massawa, Assab, Mendefera, Barentu, Adi Keyh, Edd, Dek’emhāre
Borders Southeast by Djibouti, to the south by Ethiopia, and to the west by Sudan
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) expected to reach 2.12 USD Billion by 2023
Currency nakfa (ERN)

Flag of Eritrea:

Eritrea Economy Key Industries:

Eritrea Major Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, salt, cement, commercial ship repair

Eritrea Agricultural Products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

Eritrea Natural Resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish

Eritrea Major Exports: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures (2000)

Eritrea Major Imports: machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods (2000)

The Geography of Eritrea:

Total Size of Eritrea: 117,600 km² (source: wikipedia)

Geographical Low Point of Eritrea: near Kulul within the Denakil depression -75 m

Geographical High Point of Eritrea: Soira 3,018 m

Climate of Eritrea: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands

General Terrain of Eritrea: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

World Region or Continent of Eritrea: Africa

Geographical Coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

The People of  Eritrea & Culture

Eritrea Government Type: transitional government

Eritrea Nationality: Eritrean(s)

Eritrea National Holiday: Independence Day, 24 May (1993)

Eritrea Independence: 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)

Eritrea National Symbol: camel

Eritrea National Anthem or Song: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)

Eritrea Languages Spoken:  Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages

Eritrea Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Interesting Facts about Eritrea:

Eritrea is located on the Red Sea in East Africa and shares borders with Djibouti, Ethiopia and Sudan.

The name Eritrea comes from the ancient Greek word erythra thalassa, which means the Red Sea, the largest body of water on its borders.

One of the oldest human bones of this kind was found in Eritrea. In 1998, a million-year-old hominid skull was found near the village of Buia, near Eritrea’s Red Sea coast.

Between 300 and 600 AD, Eritrea was part of the Kingdom of Axum. Aksum was a powerful ancient kingdom in northern Ethiopia, representing “the largest market in northeastern Africa”, traded as far away as Alexandria and across the Nile.

His one of Eritrea’s most famous Aksumite ruins is the city of Kohite. At this site are his four pillars of the Wakiro temple of Mariam, thought to have been a pre-Christian church. The site is surrounded by the remains of six other of his temples and several rock paintings, including Adialauti’s Cave and another refuge with more than 100 figures of him.

Eritrea was colonized by Italy in 1890 until Britain came to power in her 1941 during World War II. Britain then ruled Eritrea as a United Nations Trust Territory until 1952.

Eritrea was established in 1952 as an autonomous region within the Commonwealth of Ethiopia. However, Ethiopia annexed Eritrea in 1962, sparking a 30-year guerrilla war to seek independence.

In 1991, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) occupied the Eritrean capital of Asmara and established an interim government before voting to gain full independence in 1993. In this war, at least 250,000 people died during the war.

In 1998, Eritrea fought Ethiopia for two years over a border dispute that cost another 100,000 lives.

The port city of Massawa (main image) was once known as the ‘Pearl of the Red Sea’ due to its scenic waterfront location and diverse Ottoman, Egyptian and Italian-era architecture. However, the city suffered heavy damage during the Revolutionary War.

The flag of Eritrea features green, red and blue triangles and a yellow coat of arms. Red represents the blood shed for independence, while green and blue represent agricultural wealth and marine resources respectively. Wreath with yellow olive branches.

His 30 leaves in a wreath reflect the years of civil war that led to Eritrean independence.

Asmara means “they (women) united”, and according to oral tradition, the women of the four clans of the Asmara region persuaded the men to unite and defeat their common enemy. .

The city has one of the world’s finest collections of Art Deco architecture. Many Rationalist, Futurist, Art Deco and other Modernist architectural styles have survived from the Italian colonial period.

Thousands of Eritrean women fought alongside men during the War of Independence. By the end of the conflict, it is estimated that more than a quarter (25%) of the military were women. Children of female soldiers were called “red flowers”.

Eritrea is one of the ten least developed countries in the world. It was ranked 10th worst in the 2020 Human Development Index (HDI).

Eritrea had a tank cemetery and the wreckage of military vehicles across the country were being dragged into the fields. Local families are settled in shipping containers in the center of the area.

Eritrea is therefore a one-party dictatorship and there are no elections. It has been described as “one of Africa’s most secretive totalitarian states”.

Eritrea has the lowest level of press freedom in the world, ranking last among 180 countries assessed by the Global Press Freedom Index.