World History

Egypt | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts

Information about Egypt:

Capital Cairo
Population 113,033,755 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Cairo (capital), Alexandria, Aswan, Luxor, Faiyum, Port Said, Giza, Hurghada, Sharm El-Sheikh
Borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel to the northeast
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $476,748,000,000 (2022 worldometer)
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)

Flag of Egypt:

Egypt Economy Key Industries:

Egypt Major Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Egypt Agricultural Products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Egypt Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Egypt Major Exports: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals

Egypt Major Imports: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

The Geography of Egypt:

Total Size of Egypt: 1.002 million km² (source: wikipedia)

Geographical Low Point of Egypt: Qattara Depression -133 m

Geographical High Point of Egypt: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Climate of Egypt: Desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

General Terrain of Egypt: Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

World Region or Continent of Egypt: Africa

Geographical Coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Major Landforms of Egypt: Nile Delta (also known as Lower Egypt), Nile Valley (also known as Upper Egypt), Western (Libyan) Desert, Eastern Desert, Sinai Peninsula, Red Sea Hills, Great Sand Sea

Major Bodies of Water: Nile River (the only year round river in Egypt), Aswan Lake (reservoir created by the Aswan Dam), High Dam Lake, Lake Qarun, Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea

Famous Places of Egypt: 

Great Pyramids of Giza, 
Sphinx of Giza,
Valley of the Kings,
Abu Simbel temples,
Karnak,
Luxor Temples,
Aswan High Dam,
Cairo Museum,
Dendera,
Saladin Citadel of Cairo,
Step Pyramid of Djoser,
Nile River, Suez Canal

The People of  Egypt & Culture

Egypt Government Type: republic

Egypt Nationality: Egyptian(s)

Egypt National Holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)

Other Holidays of Egypt: Christmas (January 7), National Police Day (January 25), Sham El Nessim, Islamic New Year, Sinai Liberation Day (April 25), Labour Day (May 1), Revolution Day (July 23), Armed Forces Day (October 6), Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha

Egypt Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

Egypt National Symbol:

  • Bird – Steppe eagle
  • Flower – Egyptian lotus
  • National Emblem – The golden eagle of Saladin. It represents power and independence.
  • Coat of Arms – The golden eagle with a red, black, and white shield holding a scroll that says “Arab Republic of Egypt”
  • Sport – Soccer
  • Colors – Red, white, and black
  • Other symbols – Pyramid, Pharaoh, Sphinx

Egypt National Anthem or Song: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)

Egypt Languages Spoken: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Egypt Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%

Famous Peoples of Egypt:

Names Professions
Ahmed Zewail Nobel Prize winning chemist
Tutankhamun (King Tut) Pharaoh with intact tomb of treasure
Omar Sharif Actor
Anwar Sadat President who established peace with Israel
Ramses II Great pharaoh of Ancient Egypt
Gamal Abdel Nasser Revolutionary and President of Egypt
Hosni Mubarak President from 1981 to 2011
Hatshepsut Powerful female pharaoh
Mohamed Al-Fayed Entrepreneur

Interesting Facts about Egypt:

The only monument of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World still stands in Egypt. Only the Great Pyramid of Giza at Elgiza, Egypt, has stood the test of time. The Pyramids of Giza in the capital Cairo are as impressive as ever. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the largest of all pyramids and was built in the 4th century AD to house the pharaoh Khufu. Today it is known as the Pyramid of Khufu.

Ancient Egypt divided its civilization into two parts, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt referred to the Nile Valley from south of the Nile Delta to the first rapids of the Nile River. Lower Egypt, on the other hand, referred to the Nile Delta where the river empties into the Mediterranean Sea.

One of the first things that comes to mind when you hear Egypt is the pyramids. It was originally built by the ancient Egyptians as the final resting place of the Egyptian kings. Pyramids symbolize how light falls from the sun to the earth, just as a pyramid descends from the top to the ground. The ancient Egyptians also built all the pyramids along the west bank of the Nile to commemorate the setting sun. This symbolizes the afterlife in ancient Egyptian mythology.

Although this name almost certainly reminds us of the “Mummy” series, Imhotep was actually a fairly common name in ancient Egypt. Imhotep, who designed the pyramids, was a clergyman, a wise and influential man, but he didn’t really have magical powers. He was not immortal, nor was he cursed for treason while alive. On the contrary, after his death, Imhotep’s exploits led the ancient Egyptians to worship him as their own god.

The pyramids of Egypt may be the most famous, but they are by no means the largest in the world. That honor goes to Mexico’s Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, which covers over 200 square kilometers. In contrast, the Great Pyramid of Giza covers an area of ​​only about 21 square kilometers. However, the Great Pyramid is taller than the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, which is 137 meters high compared to 66 meters.

The afterlife is very important to the Egyptians. They thought that if they preserved the deceased’s body by the practice of mummification, their soul would continue to exist in the hereafter indefinitely.

The majority of ancient Egyptian pyramids served as tombs for the pharaohs and their family. Today, Egypt has seen the discovery of approximately 130 pyramids.

“The Pyramid of Khufu” is the largest pyramid in Egypt and is located near Giza.

Both men and women wore makeup in ancient Egypt because they thought it had miraculous healing properties.

In total, there were more than 700 hieroglyphs in the Egyptian alphabet.

More than 2,000 distinct gods were worshipped by the ancient Egyptians.

Over 2,000 years ago, the game “Senet” was played in Egypt.

Cats were revered as sacred creatures by the ancient Egyptians. Most households are thought to have kept cats as pets because they thought having one would be lucky for the home.

Many products that we still use today were devised by the Ancient Egyptians, including paper, pencils, locks, and keys. There, even toothpaste was created.

Because the Nile runs from south to north, Egypt is divided into two regions: Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north.

Many people think the pyramids were built by slaves, but in reality, skilled workers did it.

Seven of the UNESCO World Heritage sites are located in Egypt.

A fascinating fact is that Cleopatra, one of the most well-known characters from ancient Egypt, was Greek, not Egyptian.

Egypt’s “Nile” river, the world’s longest, runs through it, and over 95% of the country’s people live there.

Alexandria was given its name in honor of the person who had conquered Egypt in 331 BC.

Egypt is situated between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

The ancient Egyptians created the twelve-month calendar that is still in use today.

The official name of Egypt is Junhuriyah Misr al-Arabiya, which translates to “The Arab Republic of Egypt”.

Arabic is widely used in Egypt because it is the national tongue.

With an estimated population of 92.1 million, Egypt is the largest Arab nation on the planet.