World History

Early Islamic World | History, Population, Facts & Overview

The Islamic Empire and the Islamic faith both saw fast expansion throughout the Early Islamic World. The Middle East was going through a period of economic affluence and intellectual growth while Europe remained stuck in the dark ages. From the beginning of Islam (610 CE) to the fall of the Ottoman Empire (1924), we discuss the Islamic Empire in this section.


The Prophet Muhammad established the Islamic faith in the city of Mecca (current-day Saudi Arabia) in 610 CE. The religion quickly spread throughout the area and significantly influenced Middle Eastern and North African culture throughout the Middle Ages.


The Islamic state after Muhammad’s demise was known as the “Caliphate,” and it was headed by a “Caliph.” Muhammad taught Islam to the first four caliphs, who were known as the “Rightly Guided” Caliphs. The Umayyad Caliphate, the first Islamic kingdom, followed them. The Abbasid Caliphate established itself in 750 CE and governed for 500 years. The Abbasid Caliphate encompassed the Islamic Golden Age.

Expanse of the Empire

Throughout the Middle Ages, the Islamic Empire grew to become one of the biggest empires in recorded history. It ruled over sections of Asia into India, the Middle East, northern Africa, the Iberian peninsula (Spain), and northern Africa.

Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Empire experienced a period of scientific, cultural, technological, educational, and artistic prosperity known as the “Islamic Golden Age.” The time frame for this was from 790 CE to 1258 CE. The city of Baghdad, which served as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, was the centre of culture at this time.

Facts Worth Knowing About the Early Islamic World

In order to prevent constructing idols that people would worship, human and animal figures were rarely depicted in early Islamic art.

The Caliphate had a number of capital cities during the course of history. The major capitals included Cairo, Istanbul, Baghdad, Medina, Damascus, and Damas.

When the Mongols captured Baghdad in 1258 CE, the Islamic Golden Age came to an end.

The “Five Pillars of Islam” are the cornerstones of the Islamic faith. They are: 1) Salat (prayer) and 2) Shahadah (statement of faith). (Charity) Zakat Four) Fasting Hajj is a pilgrimage.

The Umayyad Caliphate was one of the biggest empires in human history at its height. About 28% of the world’s population was governed by it.