World History

Chile | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts

History of Chile:

Chile was first settled 10,000 years ago. Indigenous peoples gathered in Chile’s fertile valleys and along the country’s long Pacific coast. For a short time, the Inca civilization expanded into Chile, but it did not spread into Chile for long because the north was too barren.

Europeans discovered Chile in 1536. The first to arrive were the Spaniards led by Diego de Almagro. At that time, Chile was already inhabited by hundreds of thousands of indigenous people. The Spaniards soon began to conquer Chile, and in February 1941 Pedro de Valdivia founded the city of Santiago. Unlike Peru, Chile was not rich in gold or silver, but the central valley was rich in agriculture. Chile soon became part of the Spanish Empire.

In 1810 the Chileans decided to fight for independence from Spain. The war that followed was called the Reconquista. In 1817, an army led by the famous Chilean patriot Bernardo O’Higgins and the Argentinean hero José de San Martín defeated the Spanish army. They attacked across the Andes. Chile declared her independence on February 12, 1818. Bernardo O’Higgins was the first leader of Chile’s independence.

One of the most famous recent incidents in Chile is the trapping of 33 miners deep inside a gold mine in San Jose. Rescuers searched for the miners for 17 days, eventually finding them trapped 2,300 feet underground. All 33 were eventually pulled to the ground. The rescue was broadcast live on television and watched by people around the world.

Information about Chile:

Capital Santiago
Population 19,629,590 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Santiago(capital), Puente Alto, Antofagasta 
Borders Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $301,025,000,000 (2022 worldometer)
Currency Chilean peso (CLP)

Flag of Chile:

Chile Economy Key Industries:

Chile Major Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Chile Agricultural Products: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Chile Natural Resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Chile Major Exports: copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine

Chile Major Imports: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas

The Geography of Chile:

Total Size of Chile: 756,626 km² (source: 2022 wikipedia)

Geographical Low Point of Chile: Pacific Ocean 0 m

Geographical High Point of Chile: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Climate of Chile: Tropical; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

General Terrain of Chile: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

World Region or Continent of Chile:  South America

Geographical Coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

The People of  Chile & Culture

Chile Government Type: republic

Chile Nationality: Chilean (s)

Chile National Holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Chile Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

Chile National Symbol: huemul (mountain deer); Andean condor

Chile National Anthem or Song: Himno Nacional de Chile (National Anthem of Chile)

Chile Languages Spoken: Spanish

Chile Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Interesting Facts about Chile:

Chile is the longest and narrowest country in the world, stretching 4,300 km/2,670 miles from north to south.

The Atacama Desert in the northern part of the country is the world’s largest dry desert.

Easter Island, in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile, is the least inhabited island in the world.

The southern Andes are home to the world’s highest volcano and the world’s highest lake, Ojos de Salado.

Chile’s highest mountain, which is actually the top of a volcano, is Nevado Ojos de Salado. The height of the mountain is 6,880 meters.

Chile’s longest river is the Roa, which rises in the Andes Mountains. Torres del Paine National Park is one of Chile’s most famous landmarks he.

The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred in 1960 in Valdivia/Central Chile. Its magnitude on the Richter scale was 9.4. Valparaíso: The city near Santiago is usually simply called Valpa. Known for its colorful houses.

Torres del Paine National Park: Impressive glaciers are a must-see and great for mountain hikes.

Easter Island, also known as Rapa Nui, is famous for its magnificent statues called Moai.

Atacama Desert: The Valle de la Luna, which means “Valley of the Moon” in English, is famous for its salt pans.

Three out of four Chileans live in central Chile, between Copiapo and Conception. The majority of Chileans (85%) live in urban areas.

About 7 million people live in the Santiago metropolitan area. Other large cities in Chile include Valparaiso and Concepcion.

Most Chileans are of mixed Hispanic and Amerindian ancestry, but only 30% now identify as mestizo, and only 30% identify as having indigenous ties. is only 11%.

The largest indigenous people are the Mapuche. Other indigenous peoples include the Rapa Nui and Aymara peoples of Easter Island.

Soccer is very popular in Chile. This team is best known as La Roja (Red Team) because of their bright red uniforms. Javiera Toro of the Chilean Women’s National Team.