World History

Bosnia and Herzegovina | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina:

The area that is now Bosnia and Herzegovina was once part of the Roman Empire. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the region eventually developed into the Kingdom of Bosnia. In 1463 Bosnia was occupied by the Ottoman Turks.

The Turks ruled Bosnia until the late 19th century when Bosnia became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1908, Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia and made it part of that country. Some people in southern Bosnia did not want to belong to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

World War I soon broke out. After the war, Bosnia became part of Yugoslavia. Things didn’t get any better for the Bosnians. During World War II, many Bosnians were killed and persecuted.

After World War II, Yugoslavia became a communist state. Josip Broz Tito was the original leader for many years. In 1986 he was replaced by Slobodan Milosevic. This was a terrible time for the country. Various ethnic groups in Yugoslavia went to war with each other. Bosnians wanted their own country and declared independence on April 5, 1992. A month later they were recognized as a nation by the United Nations.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is now made up of her three main ethnic groups. They are Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. There are also three main languages ​​including Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian.

Information about Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Capital Sarajevo
Population 3,210,847 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Sarajevo (capital), Banja Luka, Tuzla, Zenica, Bijeljina, Mostar, Prijedor, Doboj
Borders Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $24,527,507,288 (2022 worldometer)
Currency marka (BAM)

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy Key Industries:

Bosnia and Herzegovina Major Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Bosnia and Herzegovina Agricultural Products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Bosnia and Herzegovina Natural Resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower

Bosnia and Herzegovina Major Exports: metals, clothing, wood products

Bosnia and Herzegovina Major Imports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

The Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Total Size of Bosnia and Herzegovina: 51,197 km2 (source: 2022 The world factbook)

Geographical Low Point of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Adriatic Sea 0 m

Geographical High Point of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Maglic 2,386 m

Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

General Terrain of Bosnia and Herzegovina: mountains and valleys

World Region or Continent of Bosnia and Herzegovina:  Europe

Geographical Coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

The People of  Bosnia and Herzegovina & Culture

Bosnia and Herzegovina Government Type: emerging federal democratic republic

Bosnia and Herzegovina Nationality: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

Bosnia and Herzegovina National Holiday: National Day, 25 November (1943)

Bosnia and Herzegovina Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

Bosnia and Herzegovina National Symbol: golden lily

Bosnia and Herzegovina National Anthem or Song: Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Bosnia and Herzegovina Languages Spoken: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Bosnia and Herzegovina Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Interesting Facts about Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Most of Bosnia and Herzegovina is mountainous, especially the central, southern and eastern regions. The northwestern part of the country is moderately hilly, while the northeastern part is mostly flat.

Located in southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the border with Montenegro, Mount Magrich is the highest peak in the country. Magrich is very popular with climbers and hikers.

One of the interesting facts about Bosnia and Herzegovina is that the country is very diverse. Over 95% of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s population belongs to one of the three main ethnic groups: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. It is estimated that Bosniaks make up about 50% of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbs about 30%, and Croats about 15%.

The name “Bosnia” comes from the Bosna River, which flows through central Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosna River is one of the largest rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The name Herzegovina itself derives from the archaic Serbo-Croatian term “Herzegovina” borrowed from German, a country ruled by a duke (German for “duke”), literally “duchy”. means

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a religiously diverse country, but Islam is the most dominant religion in the country. About half of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina identifies themselves as Muslim. Although the majority of Bosnian Muslims are nondenominational, about 40% identify themselves as Sunni.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has gone through many empires and dynasties. At certain points in history it was ruled by Thracians, Illyrians, Celts, Greeks, Goths, Hungarians and Byzantines.

After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slavic Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon to be renamed Yugoslavia) in 1918. After Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941, Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the Nazi puppet government, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH).