World History

Abbasid Caliphate of Islamic World

At its height, the Islamic Empire was ruled by the powerful Abbasid Caliphate. The head of the Abbasids was referred to as the caliph, just as the predecessor Umayyad Caliphate. The caliph was typically the son (or other closest male relative) of the preceding caliph during the Abbasid era.

When was it in power?

There were two main eras of the Abbasid Caliphate. The first era spanned the years 750 to 1258 CE. The Abbasids were powerful rulers who ruled over a vast area during this time and established a culture that is frequently called the “Golden Age of Islam.” However, the Mongols’ destruction of Baghdad’s capital in 1258 CE forced the Abbasids to flee to Egypt.

The second era spanned 1261 to 1517 CE. Cairo, Egypt, served as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate at this time. Although the Mamluks had genuine governmental and military power, the Abbasids were still regarded as the Islamic world’s spiritual leaders.

Which countries did it rule?

The Middle East, western Asia, and northeastern Africa (including Egypt) were all under the control of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Islam’s era of glory

Early on in the Abbasid era, there was tranquilly and wealth. Numerous fields of science, mathematics, and medicine saw significant advancements. Libraries and higher education institutions were constructed all over the empire. Arabic art and architecture reached new heights, and the culture grew. The time frame for this was from 790 CE to 1258 CE. It is frequently referred to as the Islamic Golden Age.

The Abbasids’ fall

Early in the 1200s, the Mongol Empire grew throughout eastern Asia. After capturing China, the Mongols started their westward march towards the Middle East. The Mongols arrived in Baghdad, the Abbasid Caliphate’s capital, in 1258. At the time, the Caliph refused to accede to the demands of the Mongols because he thought Baghdad could not be overrun. Hulagu Khan, the Mongol leader, then besieged the city. Baghdad had given up in less than two weeks, and the Caliph had been killed.

Rule from Egypt

The Caliphate was recovered by the Abbasids at Cairo, Egypt, in 1261. The Mamluks, a band of warrior ex-slaves, were Egypt’s genuine power brokers. The Abbasids had control over Islam while the Mamluks oversaw the military and governance. They jointly administered the Caliphate from Cairo until the Ottoman Empire overthrew them in 1517.

Facts about the Abbasid Caliphate that are interesting

Many historians believe that the sacking of Baghdad in 1258 marked the end of the Islamic Caliphate.

The Mamluks were originally the Islamic Caliphate’s slave soldiers. They did, however, eventually seize control of Egypt and come into their own.

The fact that the Abbasids were the ancestors of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib gave them their name. Abbas was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad and his uncle.

Kufa served as the Abbasids’ initial capital. But in 762 CE, they established and built Baghdad as their new capital.

Around 800,000 people, according to historians, were slaughtered when the Mongols sacked Baghdad. The Caliph was slain by being covered in a carpet and tramped on by horses.